16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Federal Income Tax (1913)

Far-reaching in its social as well as its economic impact, the income tax amendment became part of the Constitution by a curious series of events culminating in a bit of political maneuvering that went awry.

The financial requirements of the Civil War prompted the first American income tax in 1861. At first, Congress placed a flat 3-percent tax on all incomes over $800 and later modified this principle to include a graduated tax. Congress repealed the income tax in 1872, but the concept did not disappear.

After the Civil War, the growing industrial and financial markets of the eastern United States generally prospered. But the farmers of the south and west suffered from low prices for their farm products, while they were forced to pay high prices for manufactured goods. Throughout the 1860s, 1870s, and 1880s, farmers formed such political organizations as the Grange, the Greenback Party, the National Farmers’ Alliance, and the People’s (Populist) Party. All of these groups advocated many reforms (see the Interstate Commerce Act) considered radical for the times, including a graduated income tax.

In 1894, as part of a high tariff bill, Congress enacted a 2-percent tax on income over $4,000. The tax was almost immediately struck down by a five-to-four decision of the Supreme Court, even though the Court had upheld the constitutionality of the Civil War tax as recently as 1881. Although farm organizations denounced the Court’s decision as a prime example of the alliance of government and business against the farmer, a general return of prosperity around the turn of the century softened the demand for reform. Democratic Party Platforms under the leadership of three-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, however, consistently included an income tax plank, and the progressive wing of the Republican Party also espoused the concept.

In 1909 progressives in Congress again attached a provision for an income tax to a tariff bill. Conservatives, hoping to kill the idea for good, proposed a constitutional amendment enacting such a tax; they believed an amendment would never received ratification by three-fourths of the states. Much to their surprise, the amendment was ratified by one state legislature after another, and on February 25, 1913, with the certification by Secretary of State Philander C. Knox, the 16th amendment took effect. Yet in 1913, due to generous exemptions and deductions, less than 1 percent of the population paid income taxes at the rate of only 1 percent of net income.

This document settled the constitutional question of how to tax income and, by so doing, effected dramatic changes in the American way of life.

(Information excerpted from Milestone Documents in the National Archives [Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995] pp. 69–73.)

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Missouri Right To Work

I attempted to attend the Right To Work hearing in Jefferson City today.  The room was overflowing, so instead, I visited with various legislators and friends throughout the building.  As I drove back to St. Louis, lots of questions were swirling in my head.  Here they are.  Read them imagining they’re being asked with all possible condescension and loathing by David Spade’s character ‘Richard’ in the movie ‘Tommy Boy’:

If unions are so great and provide such a benefit to the companies and the state at large… …why do they need a law to force employees to join the union?

Shouldn’t the employees ‘want’ to join the union?

Why do unions think that employees will leave them when the Missouri voters free the employee to make their own decision? I thought unions were so great? Shouldn’t employees still ‘want’ to stay with the unions since they are so great?

If unions are so great, why do they need to have prevailing wage laws to be able to compete for state contracts? Shouldn’t union labor costs be lower because they are so great and competitive?

Don’t the union bosses believe in the freedom of the employee to make up their own mind in deciding to join the union based on the benefits that the union can offer them? Shouldn’t the employee be allowed the freedom to choose?

And since unions are so great, the employees will certainly choose to join them, right?!?! So, there’s nothing for the union bosses to worry about and this is much ado about nothing.

I’m sure the bosses at the unions are mostly pro-choice in killing babies.  Shouldn’t they also be pro-choice in joining the union as well?

Or, did we find another prime example of hypocrisy in the Democratic ranks.

h/t laborunionreport.com

Presidential Gall

To my Democrat-voting friends,

Please.  Tell me how you vote for such a hypocrite.  Watch this man’s absolute insolence at 2:06.  Clearly he even has a problem with the number of kids the man has.  Will Chinese style eugenics be next on the list?

Thank you to the Don Smith Show for exposing this hypocrisy!

Typical Leftist Women’s Hypocrisy

Leftist women across the country are capitalizing on faux outrage against Rush Limbaugh for his comments about the discredited Sandra Fluke… …who somehow needs $3,000 per year for Contraception but doesn’t fit the adjective “promiscuous” …the definition for slut.

They ignore Bill Maher, Ed Shultz, and Keith Olbermann’s far more egregious verbal assault on Conservative Women such as Sarah Palin and Laura Ingraham.  But, say a few inappropriate words about poor Sandra Fluke (who is indeed prostituting herself to the leftist assault on religious freedom), and the bras are getting burned once again.

In today’s Southeast Missourian, the story describes two unnamed women’s groups that dropped petitions and toilet paper rolls at House Speaker Stephen Tilley’s office in protest of Rush Limbaugh.  The leftist state run Associated Press certainly wouldn’t want to name the groups, so real news reporters could follow up.

We all know this.  When the bust of Rush Limbaugh is placed among Missouri’s celebrities, we can count on leftist scum to deface it in the same way Occupy St. Louis defaced local landmarks.

But, what will they do with the bust of David Rice Atchison?

h/t house.mo.govAs typical with short-sighted liberal progs, they ignore the history of certain Missouri Hall of Fame members.

“Atchison is best known for the claim that for one day (March 4, 1849) he may have been Acting President of the United States.”

But the larger part of his life was spent as a rabid, “prominent pro-slavery activist and Border Ruffian leader, deeply involved with violence against abolitionists and other free-staters during the ‘Bleeding Kansas’ events.”

Of course, the Hall of Famous Missourians page for Atchison omits that part of the story.

“As a Senator, Atchison was a fervent advocate of slavery and territorial expansion. He supported the annexation of Texas and the U.S.-Mexican War. Atchison and Missouri’s other Senator, the venerable Thomas Hart Benton, became rivals and finally enemies. Benton declared himself to be against slavery in 1849, and in 1851 Atchison allied with the Whigs to defeat Benton for re-election.”

“Atchison proposed that the [Kansas/Nebraska] area be organized and that the section of the Missouri Compromise banning slavery there be repealed in favor of popular sovereignty, under which the settlers in each territory would decide themselves whether slavery would be allowed.”

“At Atchison’s request, Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which embodied this idea, in November 1853. The Act became law in May 1854, establishing the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska.”

So ladies, where are the petitions and toilet paper bombs being delivered to decry the inclusion of this racist pro-slavery U.S. Senator in the Missouri Hall of Fame?  Where’s the outrage?

Well, Atchison is a Democrat, so we can count on your typical leftist double standard justifying his behavior because he’s on your side.  We’ll expect to see his bust being adorned with gardenias and roses while your thugs defecate on Rush’s.

How any reasonable Missourian can vote with the Democrat party and it’s advancement of Infanticide, Racism, Misogyny, Double Standards and it’s attacks at the very heart of the Constitution is beyond me.

Leftist women across the country are capitalizing on faux outrage against Rush Limbaugh for his comments about the discredited Sandra Fluke… …who somehow needs $3,000 per year for Contraception but doesn’t fit the adjective “promiscuous” …the definition for slut.

They ignore Bill Maher, Ed Shultz, and Keith Olbermann’s far more egregious verbal assault on Conservative Women such as Sarah Palin and Laura Ingraham.  But, say a few inappropriate words about poor Sandra Fluke (who is indeed prostituting herself to the leftist assault on religious freedom), and the bras are getting burned once again.

In today’s Southeast Missourian, the story describes two unnamed women’s groups that dropped petitions and toilet paper rolls at House Speaker Stephen Tilley’s office in protest of Rush Limbaugh.  The leftist state run Associated Press certainly wouldn’t want to name the groups, so real news reporters could follow up.

We all know this.  When the bust of Rush Limbaugh is placed among Missouri’s celebrities, we can count on leftist scum to deface it in the same way Occupy St. Louis defaced local landmarks.

But, what will they do with the bust of David Rice Atchison?

h/t house.mo.govAs typical with short-sighted liberal progs, they ignore the history of certain Missouri Hall of Fame members.

Atchison is best known for the claim that for one day (March 4, 1849) he may have been Acting President of the United States.

But the larger part of his life was spent as a rabid,

“prominent pro-slavery activist and Border Ruffian leader, deeply involved with violence against abolitionists and other free-staters during the ‘Bleeding Kansas’ events.”

Of course, the Hall of Famous Missourians page for Atchison omits that part of the story.

“As a Senator, Atchison was a fervent advocate of slavery and territorial expansion. He supported the annexation of Texas and the U.S.-Mexican War. Atchison and Missouri’s other Senator, the venerable Thomas Hart Benton, became rivals and finally enemies. Benton declared himself to be against slavery in 1849, and in 1851 Atchison allied with the Whigs to defeat Benton for re-election.”

“Atchison proposed that the [Kansas/Nebraska] area be organized and that the section of the Missouri Compromise banning slavery there be repealed in favor of popular sovereignty, under which the settlers in each territory would decide themselves whether slavery would be allowed.”

“At Atchison’s request, Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which embodied this idea, in November 1853. The Act became law in May 1854, establishing the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska.”

So ladies, where are the petitions and toilet paper bombs being delivered to decry the inclusion of this racist pro-slavery U.S. Senator in the Missouri Hall of Fame?  Where’s the outrage?

Well, Atchison is a Democrat, so we can count on your typical leftist double standard justifying his behavior because he’s on your side.  We’ll expect to see his bust being adorned with gardenias and roses while your thugs defecate on Rush’s.

How any reasonable Missourian can vote with the Democrat party and it’s advancement of Infanticide, Racism, Misogyny, Double Standards and it’s attacks at the very heart of the Constitution is beyond me.